To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Nurlina Syahiirah. There is a significant difference between them where the soaps are produced from the natural products while the detergents are synthetic or man-made. The objectives of the experiment is to prepare soap and compare its properties to that of a synthetics detergent.
The soap is prepared by heating the mixture of mineral oil, ethanol and sodium hydroxide until they become paste-like mixture before being cooled off in ice bath for 15 minutes and filtered using vacuum filtration apparatus.
The filtered soap is then stored in vacuum chamber for one week to ensure the water is fully removed from the soap. The synthetics detergent used in the experiment is Dynamo. The pH of the soap and detergent is 11 and 8, respectively.
Emulsification occurs only on the distilled water sample and not on detergent solution and soap solution sample. The hydrochloric acid needed to change the pH of the soap solutions to 3 is 10 drops of HCl while for detergent solution is 2 drops of HCl.
Relative cleanliness for detergent solution, soap solution and detergent without dilution with distilled water are the most clean, clean and slightly clean, respectively.
Detergent solution is more effective compared to soap solution. The objectives are successfully obtained, therefore the experiment is successfully done.Cornwall free news sold
Beneath the plain white surface of a bar of Ivory soap lies an intrigung history and a powerful chemistry. Actually, soap and detergents are very similar in their chemical properties which is same function used to wash and clean a dirt.
However, there is a significant difference between them where the soaps are produced from the natural products while the detergents are synthetic or man-made. As a matter of fact, the salt of a fatty acid is the soap, which is a soft and waxy material that brush up the ability for cleaning purpose of water. Soap is a generic term for the sodium or potassium salts of long-chain organic acids fatty acids made from naturally occurring esters in animal fats and vegetable oils.
Chemists use the R shorthand notation because these groups can be very large and the hydrocarbon chain has little effect on the compound's chemical reactivity. All esters contain the RCO2R functional group. The R groups in soaps are hydrocarbon chains that generally contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms. Sodium fatty acids such as lauric vegetable oilpalmitic palm oiland stearic animal fat acids are just a few examples of soaps.
The hydrocarbon chain in soaps may contain saturated which there is no double bonds or unsaturated contains double bonds chains. Sodium salts are usually solid, therefore most bars of soap are of sodium salts. Potassium salts are the basis of liquid soaps, shaving creams, and greases. Fats and vegetable oils are triglycerides. Triglycerides are esters derived from three fatty acids. Triglycerides in an ester derived from three fatty acids.
A triglyceride made from three lauric acid molecules is shown in Figure 1. Saponification is the basic hydrolysis of an ester producing a carboxylic acid salt and an alcohol. When a triglyceride is saponified, three fatty acid salts which is soap and glycerol are produced.
The R groups in the triglyceride may or may not have the same chain length. Thus, different types of soaps may be produced from the saponification of a particular triglyceride. Futhermore, the soap tends to decrease its melting point due to the presence of double bond which known as unsaturated with fatty acids materials. Thus, the compounds are in liquid form at room temperature.A laboratory report can be used for several purposes.
A company may create its product strategy based on the report findings. Scientists can use the report as a basis for their research. A lab report can also be used for criminal investigation by the police personnel. In all these cases, it is imperative that a lab report be factual and provide adequate summarization of findings, backed by concrete evidence. Crucial aspects of a lab report are the discussion and conclusion. In the shorter version of a lab report, the discussion section is typically separated from the results section and serves as a conclusion as well.
In the longer version of a report, where there are multiple findings, the discussion is typically included within the results section itself, and a separate conclusion section is provided to summarize the findings.
In both cases, discussion and conclusion sections help to synthesize the findings by tying them to the objectives and discussing the implications. A key objective of the discussion section is to synthesize the results by providing a logical explanation. In most of the cases, the discussion section revolves around existing theories and hypotheses referenced in the literature review section of the lab report.
It can also formulate a new theory around the results. A key purpose of the discussion section is to move from specifics to general information. A conclusion section provides a synopsis of work in which the results findings are mapped to the objectives. The conclusion section can also include lessons learned and future research areas that could shed further light on the current experiment.
Typically, a detailed analysis of findings is provided in the conclusion section, including the reasons for not achieving the predicted outcome if the results did not meet the expectations. A lab report should not include any conflicting information that might cause confusion and trigger questions about the credibility of the report.
Experiment 2 Preparation of Solution
The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. Avoid repeating information, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight. The report should link back to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review section of the report. Each conclusion should be supported with appropriate evidence.
The report should include interpretation of the results, including any new findings from the research. If the research uncovers some open issues that have to be further analyzed, the report should suggest further work to explore them. However, take care not to overspeculate. Venkatesh has more than 25 years of experience in different industries including telecommunications, healthcare, banking and financial management, government, transportation and logistics, education, and consumer goods.
Venkatesh holds a Ph. How to Write a Scientific Conclusion for a Dissertation. How to Write an Analytical Report. How to Write a Report for College.You can also evaluate limitations and make recommendations. Keywords: Dosage calculation, stock solution preparation, crude plant extract, sylimarin and chemiron blood tonic.
First, with a prepared slide, area X and Y were located and each counted and recorded of what stages were observed. Prepare a data sheet with room for duplicate absorbance readings for each of the ten mixtures labeled as indicated in the next section. The mold has two open ends, therefore must be taped tightly and repetitively. Then I will carefully weigh out the mass of solute, dissolve it into the water and transfer the solution into a volumetric flask.
A stock solution is a solution from which a dilute solution can be prepared. Once solid dissolved, weigh the watch glass and filter paper, use the filter paper to carry out suction filtration, place crystals on watch glass, weigh the 2. If you need to know the requirements for a specific section, you should check the guidelines for the laboratory report paper.
Quora is a place to gain and share knowledge. For Chemistry lab, the expected length is 1 — 2 paragraphs. The preparation of a reactive solution of accurately known concentration is fundamental to these methods, and the exercise serves as an introduction to the techniques of solution preparation and titration.Insospettabili sospetti
In the research laboratory, the laboratory notebook simplifies the final step in a project: the research article or conference presentation. CHM Solution Lab. Additional materials for exam preparation can be found under the class sessions dedicated to exam review.
Additional tips for preparing and usingFehling's Solution deep blue colored is used to determine the presence of reducing sugars and aldehydes. Nickel complexes are coloured because they absorb light in the visible region. The most common solutions are aqueous solutions, in which water is the solvent. In most of the cases, the discussion section revolves around existing theories and hypotheses referenced in the literature review section of the lab report.
The prepared solution was standardized with sodium carbonate pellets which is hygroscopic which absorb water from the surroundings but do not dissolve.
One in preparing a tricky aqueous solution of ammonium chloride using an analytical balance, which your Solve the preparation. The concentration of a solute is the ratio of the amount of solute to the amount of solution or solvent. Solutions with accurately known concentrations can be referred to as standard stock solutions.
The spatula was put in hydrochloric acid, then put into water, and then put over the flame to burn off any residue from the salt solution.
To know the preparation techniques of standard base solutions. The best way to prepare to write the lab report is to make sure that you fully understand everything you need to about the experiment.Stock Solutions \u0026 Working Solutions
In all these cases, it is imperative that a lab report be factual and provide adequate summarization of findings, backed by concrete evidence. Label pen or pencil three filter paper circles from 1 to 3. Added tip of carbon black to mixture and mixture almost boiled over!
This lab was an experiment designed to analyze how many cells could be observed in each part of mitosis for different areas of an onion root. Allow the compound to dissolve completely, swirling the flask gently if necessary.Huawei 4g router
Then, another onion root tip was prepared and area Z was located. Preparation of a stock solution of chromium III nitrate. Filed Under: Essays.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Amelia Jasmine. Even on this basic laboratory experiment requires of those standard obligations, granting students, current and forthcoming scientists become more precise and meticulous.
In this basic laboratory experiment, ml 1 M solution of NaCL and water was calculated and later mixed, before 1 ml of it was dropped into a 25 ml flask and was filled with water. The usage of burette was involved in the second experiment, disposing it up to 8. The first stop is a common piece of equipment: a balance. A balance is used to determine the mass of a substance. Balances come in a large variety, and it's best to be sure when measuring with one that has the precision necessary for the experiment.
For the hypothetical experiment, 2. Then, the NaCl was put into a beaker, some water was added for about 75 ml and it was disolved with magnetic stir band, spun at rpm. Next, 1 ml of NaCl solution was taken by using pipette to the 25 ml volumetric flask. Lastly, 25 ml of water was added.
On the second experiment, the equipment burette was involved for the measurement. The water was added to a beaker glass until it reached in 0 ml mark. Some water was disposed by the lab instructor until it reached 8. We were asked to deliver some water until it reached 7. Lastly, the final result of Here is the picture of the solution level compared to the mark: 5 Discussion NaCl Sodium chloride is made from positive sodium ions bonded to negative chloride ions.Side dresser applicator
Water can dissolve salt because the positive part of water molecules attracts the negative chloride ions and the negative part of water molecules attracts the positive sodium ions. Molarity, also known as molar concentration, is the number of moles of a substance per liter of solution.
Solutions labeled with the molar concentration are denoted with a capital M. This process keeps the amount of solute constant, but increases the total amount of solution, thereby decreasing its final concentration. Dilution can also be achieved by mixing a solution of higher concentration with an identical solution of lesser concentration. Diluting solutions is a necessary process in the laboratory, as stock solutions are often purchased and stored in very concentrated forms.
For the solutions to be usable in the lab for a titration, for instancethey must be accurately diluted to a known, lesser concentration. The volume of solvent needed to prepare the desired concentration of a new, diluted solution can be calculated mathematically.Wiring diagram citroen jumper 2007 diagram base website
When calculating dilution factors, it is important that the units for both volume and concentration are the same for both sides of the equation. However, human errors are tolerated in some cases, while some are not.Preparation and Performance Rating A.
Solutions are most commonly used reagents in the laboratory. When a substance called solute is dissolved in another substance called the solvent, a solution is formed. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid the solute in water the solvent.
The concentration of a solution represents the amount of solute dissolved in a unit amount of solvent or of solution. Molarity M is probably the most commonly used unit of concentration. It is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. Molality m is the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. Normality N is equal to the gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of solution.
A gram equivalent weight or equivalent is a measure of the reactive capacity of a given molecule. Dilution is adding solvent to a solution. Adding solvent results in a solution of lower concentration. Another way of expressing the concentration of solutions is mole fraction. This is the number of moles of a compound divided by the total number of moles of all chemical species in the solution.
Objective: At the end of the experiment, the student shall be able to: 1. Prepare solutions of different concentrations; 2. Compute the mass of solute needed to prepare a certain concentration of the solution. Materials: 2-Volumetric flask mL measuring pipette 10 mL Beaker mL measuring pipette 5 ml water bath wash bottle medicine dropper stirring rod. Procedure: A.
Solid solute 1. Wash all glassware apparatus with soap and water ; rinse with distilled and allow to dry in an upside down position. Compute for the mass of Sodium hydroxide necessary to prepare mL of a 0. Weigh out accurately into a beaker the amount of Sodium hydroxide needed.
Dissolve the NaOH with about 30 mL of distilled water with stirring done under the hood while beaker is immerse in a water bath 5.
Pour the NaOH solution in a mL capacity volumetric flask and rinse the beaker with about 5 mL of distilled water twice.
Preparation of solution lab report discussion
Pour the washings into the volumetric flask also. Add distilled water dilution up to the mL mark of the flask. Stopper the flask and shake by turning the flask upside down the solution.
Transfer the prepared solution into a reagent bottle and label the bottle as 0. Dilution process 1. Use the dilution formula. Transfer about 30 mL of distilled water into the volumetric flask and carefully pour the measured volume of 12 M H2SO4 1.
Always pour the acid to the water 3. Fill the flask up to the mL mark with distilled water.Paid medical internships for undergraduates summer 2020
Stopper and mix thoroughly. Transfer to a reagent bottle and label with 3 M H2SO4. Compute for the amount of NaCl needed to prepare the solution. Weigh the NaCl in a beaker and dissolve with about 30 mL of distilled water.You can carry the same kind of cotton bags for bulk purchases as for produce (see above. Why shop from bulk bins and take new plastic bags. A question I am frequently asked is how to avoid paying for the additional weight of the container. Stores have various methods for deducting the container weight.
At Whole Foods, for example, I take my containers to the customer service desk to have them weighed before filling. That weight is then deducted from the total weight of the item at the checkout counter. At Berkeley Bowl, empty containers are weighed at the Bulk Counter and then weighed again at the same counter when full before checking out.
At Rainbow Grocery, customers weigh their own containers. And all the cotton bags that I use are printed with the tare weight on their tags.
How to Write a Conclusion or Discussion Section for a Lab Report
Concerned about cross contamination for people with allergies. Check out my post on avoiding gluten while still living plastic-free. Even if you live in an area that does not have bulk food stores, you can still buy non-perishable goods in large size packages, which will decrease the amount of plastic used overall. What are we worried about.
Or is it that the produce will get dirty. At the grocery store, I put most produce directly into my cart and then into my reusable bag. If you do feel you want a separate bag for produce, cloth options are available. Some alternatives are Ambatalia, ECOBAGS, ChicoBag produce bags, or handmade bags from Etsy sellers. Check out this video of a woman who can make five reusable bags from one T-shirt.
Wondering how to store your produce without plastic once you get it home. Check out this extensive list of ways to buy and store produce without plastic, or specifically buying and storing loose lettuce and leafy greens.
Read more about farmers markets going plastic-free. I buy Spectrum vinegar which comes in a glass bottle. Only the cap is plastic. It scours well and leaves dishes feeling squeaky clean.Astrology precisely predicts future and tells how the stars favor your endeavors and impact your life. Empower yourself using astrological knowledge and understand the universal forces working on you. Free horoscope 2017 with day to day predictions covering health, love, career and finance.
If you have faith in astrology and believe there is a mysterious connection between celestial bodies and human life, the content of these pages will guide you in the right direction. Check its presence in your birth chart. Forgot Password Create a New Account Keep Me Signed In What does "Remember Me" do.
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